Tamil Polity As Described in Sangam Literature

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Tamil Polity As Described in Sangam Literature

Sangam literature is a collection of ancient Tamil literature that was written between 300 BCE and 300 CE. These texts provide valuable insights into the political and social structure of ancient Tamil society.

The political structure of ancient Tamil society was centred around small, autonomous villages known as “ur.” Each ur was ruled by a chieftain, who was elected by the villagers and held power for a fixed term. The chieftain was responsible for maintaining order and protecting the village from outside threats. He was also responsible for settling disputes and distributing resources such as land and water.

Above the level of the ur, there were larger political entities known as “Nadu.” A Nadu was a federation of several villages, and it was ruled by a chief who was elected by the chieftains of the constituent villages. The chief of a Nadu had more power than a chieftain of a single village, but he still had to answer to the chieftains and the people of the villages.

The largest political entity in ancient Tamil society was the “mulai Nadu” or “great Nadu.” This was a federation of several nadus, and it was ruled by a king. The king was elected by the chiefs of the constituent Nadus, and he held a higher level of power than a chief of a single nadu. The king was responsible for maintaining order and protecting the entire federation from outside threats. He also had the power to distribute resources and settle disputes between the different Nadus.

The Sangam literature also describes the existence of a powerful council of nobles known as the “Ur-velirs.” The Ur-velirs were a group of elite warriors and administrators who advised the king and helped him to govern the kingdom. They were also responsible for maintaining the defence and security of the kingdom.

The Sangam literature also describes the existence of a powerful council of nobles known as the “Ur-velirs.” The Ur-velirs were a group of elite warriors and administrators who advised the king and helped him to govern the kingdom. They were also responsible for maintaining the defence and security of the kingdom.

The society of ancient Tamilakam was divided into four social classes: the aristocracy, the commoners, the farmers, and the slaves. The aristocracy was made up of the ruling class and the warriors. The commoners were merchants and artisans. The farmers were the most numerous class and produced most of the food. The slaves were the lowest class and were owned by the upper classes.

In ancient Tamil society, the king was the highest authority and was responsible for maintaining order and protecting the kingdom from outside threats. The society was divided into four social classes: the aristocracy, the commoners, the farmers, and the slaves. The aristocracy was made up of the ruling class and the warriors. The commoners were merchants and artisans. The farmers were the most numerous class and produced most of the food. The slaves were the lowest class and were owned by the upper classes.

Sangam literature also describes the concept of the “Kudavolai” system in which the land was owned by the community and was leased to individual families for cultivation. The proceeds from the land were used to support the community. The community was responsible for the distribution of resources, and for the settlement of disputes.

Sangam literature provides valuable insights into the political and social structure of ancient Tamil society. It describes a decentralized political system in which power was distributed among small, autonomous villages, larger federations of villages, and a powerful king. The society was divided into four social classes, and the king was the highest authority. The literature also describes the concept of “Kudavolai”

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