Salient Features Of The Indian Constitution

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The Indian Constitution, which came into effect on January 26, 1950, is one of the longest and most comprehensive constitutions in the world. It lays down the framework of the government and the rights and duties of citizens and establishes India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. Here are some of the salient features of the Indian Constitution:

Federal System of Government: The Indian Constitution establishes a federal system of government, with a division of powers between the central government and the state governments. The central government has exclusive powers over certain subjects such as defence, foreign affairs, and currency, while the state governments have exclusive powers over subjects such as law and order, and land revenue.

Written Constitution: The Indian Constitution is a written constitution that lays down the framework of the government and the rights and duties of citizens. It is divided into 22 parts, with 448 articles and 12 schedules.

Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, and Democratic: The Indian Constitution establishes India as a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. This means that India is a self-governing nation, that the government is accountable to the people, that it promotes social and economic justice, and that it does not discriminate on the basis of religion.

Fundamental Rights: The Indian Constitution guarantees certain fundamental rights to its citizens, including the freedom of speech, religion, and movement, as well as the right to equality, and property. These rights are protected by the judiciary and can be enforced through the court system.

Directive Principles of State Policy: The Constitution lays down certain directive principles of state policy that the government must strive to achieve, such as social justice, economic development, and the promotion of international peace. These principles serve as guidelines for the government in shaping its policies and actions.

Independent Judiciary: The Indian Constitution establishes an independent judiciary, with the Supreme Court as the highest court of appeal. The judiciary serves as a check on the actions of the legislative and executive branches of government, and it has the power to interpret the Constitution and strike down laws that are deemed unconstitutional.

Single Citizenship: The Indian Constitution establishes single citizenship for all citizens of India, regardless of their religion, caste, or ethnicity. This ensures that all citizens are treated equally and have the same rights and privileges.

Emergency Provisions: The Indian Constitution provides emergency provisions in the event of war, external aggression, or internal disturbance. These provisions allow the government to suspend certain rights and assume additional powers in order to maintain national security.

Quasi-federalism: The Indian Constitution also provides for a certain degree of autonomy to the states, but with certain provisions for the centre to intervene if it feels that the states are not fulfilling their obligations. This allows for a balance between the power of the central government and the state governments.

Amending the Constitution: The Indian Constitution allows for its amendment by a two-thirds majority in both houses of the parliament and ratification by at least half of the state legislatures. This ensures that the Constitution can adapt to changing times and circumstances while maintaining its essential character.

Federal Structure: The Indian Constitution divides the powers of the government between the centre and the states, in a federal structure. It also provides for a bicameral legislature at the centre and a unicameral legislature in the states.

Preamble: The Preamble of the Indian Constitution lays out the fundamental principles of the Constitution and the ideals that the Constitution seeks to achieve.

Separation of Powers: The Indian Constitution provides for a separation of powers between the Executive, Judiciary and Legislature. This ensures that no one branch of the government becomes too powerful.

Fundamental Duties: The Indian Constitution also lays down some fundamental duties for the citizens, which are expected to be fulfilled for the preservation of the sovereignty, unity and integrity of the nation.

The Indian Constitution is a document that reflects the aspirations and values of the Indian people, it guarantees the rights and freedoms of citizens and lays down the framework of the government and its institutions. It is a living document that has been amended several times over the years to adapt to changing circumstances and continues to be the supreme law of the land.

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