Write A Note On The Revenue Administration Under The Sultans Of Delhi
The revenue administration under the Sultans of Delhi, who ruled over much of North India from the 13th to the 16th centuries, was a complex and sophisticated system that was designed to maximize revenue collection and support the needs of the state. The revenue administration was an integral part of the Sultanate’s system of government, and it played a vital role in the economic and political life of the region.
Under the Sultans of Delhi, the revenue administration was centred around the idea of the iqta, which was a grant of land that was held in trust by a military officer or official. The iqta system was a key part of the revenue administration, as it allowed the Sultans to collect revenue from the land without directly owning it. The iqta system also allowed the Sultans to reward their officials and military officers for their service, as the iqta holders were entitled to a portion of the revenue from the land.
The revenue administration under the Sultans of Delhi was also characterized by the use of a variety of tax systems, including land taxes, trade taxes, and other forms of taxation. Land taxes were a major source of revenue for the Sultans of Delhi, and they were collected from the owners of agricultural land and other types of property. Trade taxes were another important source of revenue, and they were collected from merchants and traders who engaged in trade within the Sultanate or who imported and exported goods. In addition to land taxes and trade taxes, the Sultans of Delhi also imposed a variety of other taxes, including taxes on professions, crafts, and other activities.
The Sultans of Delhi used a variety of tax collectors and officials to administer the tax system, and they established a system of courts and legal procedures to resolve disputes and enforce tax laws. The revenue administration was overseen by a number of high-ranking officials, including the wazir (prime minister), who was responsible for managing the financial affairs of the state, and the diwan (finance minister), who was responsible for collecting and managing the revenues of the state.
In addition to the iqta system and the use of various tax systems, the revenue administration under the Sultans of Delhi also involved the management of state lands and other resources. The Sultans of Delhi owned a significant amount of land and other resources, including forests, mines, and other assets, and they were responsible for the cultivation and management of these resources. The Sultans of Delhi also relied on the labour of their subjects to maintain their lands and other resources, and they often used forced labour or corvée labour to meet their needs.
The revenue administration under the Sultans of Delhi was a complex and sophisticated system that played a vital role in the economic and political life of the region. The iqta system and the use of a variety of tax systems allowed the Sultans to collect revenue from the land and the people, and it helped to support the needs of the state. The management of state lands and other resources also contributed to the revenue of the state, and the labour of the subjects played a crucial role in maintaining the lands and other resources of the Sultanate.
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