Land Revenue Settlements Under The British Rule

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Land Revenue Settlements Under The British Rule

Land revenue settlements under British rule in India, which existed during the British Raj, were a system implemented by the British government to collect revenue from land ownership and agricultural production. The system was designed to increase revenue collection and create a stable and predictable source of income for the British government.

The British government introduced a variety of land revenue settlement systems during their rule in India, each with its specific characteristics. The most significant of these systems were the Permanent Settlement, the Ryotwari system, the Mahalwari system, and the Zamindari system.

The Permanent Settlement system

The Permanent Settlement system was introduced in Bengal in 1793, by Lord Cornwallis, it was based on the idea of creating a permanent and fixed relationship between the government and the landholders. Under this system, the land revenue was fixed at a high rate, and the landholders were given the right to collect rent from tenants and transfer or sell their land. This system was intended to encourage the growth of a class of wealthy landowners who would support the British government and provide a stable source of revenue.

The Ryotwari system

The Ryotwari system was introduced in the Madras Presidency in 1820, it was based on the idea of a direct relationship between the government and the cultivator. Under this system, the cultivator was considered to be the owner of the land and was responsible for paying the land revenue directly to the government. The government conducted surveys to determine the productivity of the land and set the revenue accordingly. This system was intended to provide more flexibility and encourage the growth of small and medium-sized farms.

The Mahalwari system

The Mahalwari system was introduced in the North-Western Provinces and Punjab in 1822, it was based on the idea of a group settlement, where a group of villages, known as Mahals, were collectively responsible for paying the land revenue. The revenue was assessed based on the productivity of the land and was collected by local officials known as Patwaris. This system was intended to provide more stability and predictability in revenue collection and to encourage the growth of larger farms.

The Zamindari system

The British government also introduced land revenue policies such as the zamindari system, which aimed to simplify land revenue collection and increase the predictability of revenue collection and the stability of landholding. Under the zamindari system, the British government recognized the rights of intermediaries such as zamindars, who would collect land revenue from tenants on behalf of the government. Under the ryotwari system, the government directly assessed the land revenue and collected it from the cultivators.

Land revenue settlements under British rule in India were a system implemented by the British government to collect revenue from land ownership and agricultural production. The British government introduced a variety of land revenue settlement systems such as Permanent Settlement, the Ryotwari system, and the Mahalwari system, each with its specific characteristics. These systems aimed to increase revenue collection and create a stable and predictable source of income for the British government. The British government also introduced land revenue policies such as the zamindari system and the ryotwari system, which aimed to simplify land revenue collection and increase the predictability of revenue collection and the stability of landholding. These systems had a significant impact on the agrarian structure and revenue collection of British India.

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