Mohenjo-daro, also spelt Mohenjodaro, is an ancient Indus Valley Civilization city that flourished around 2600 BCE. The city is located in present-day Pakistan and was discovered in the 1920s.
The layout of Mohenjo-daro is characterized by its grid-like street pattern, which is divided into two main parts: the citadel and the lower city. The citadel, located on a raised platform, contained the city’s public buildings, including the Great Bath and a large assembly hall. The lower city contained the majority of the residential structures, as well as a number of smaller public buildings.
One of the chief characteristics of Mohenjo-daro is its advanced urban planning and architecture. The city was built on a grid pattern, with streets running parallel and perpendicular to each other. The houses were made of brick and had access to a central drainage system. Many of the houses had private wells and bathrooms, indicating a high standard of living. The Great Bath, a large public bath located in the citadel, is another example of the advanced architectural skills of the Indus Valley civilization.
Another characteristic of Mohenjo-daro is the presence of a complex system of weights and measures, indicating a high level of social organization and economic activity. The city also had a sophisticated system of seals, which were used for trade and as a form of identification. These seals, which have been found at various Indus Valley sites, are typically made of steatite and depict animals, such as elephants, tigers, and unicorns, as well as geometric designs.
Mohenjo-daro also had a rich cultural and religious life. A number of religious structures, including a large number of small, fire-altars, have been discovered at the site. A number of small statues, many of which depict a female figure, have also been found, indicating the presence of a goddess cult.
Despite the high level of civilization, the city was eventually abandoned around 1900 BCE. The reasons for the city’s decline and abandonment are still not well understood, but it is believed to be related to environmental factors such as drought and flooding.
Overall, Mohenjo-Daro is a fascinating glimpse into an ancient civilization that had a high level of urban planning, architecture, and economic activity, as well as a rich cultural and religious life. The city’s decline and abandonment remain a mystery, but the artefacts and ruins of Mohenjo-Daro offer insight into the lives of the people who once lived there.
You may also like this…
- Salient Features Of The Indian Constitution
- The Relations between Congress and Muslims from 1885 to 1914
- The Attitude of the Indian Capitalists towards the Congress
- Reasons for Congress’s Acceptance of Partition