Describe The Various Types Of Land Settlements In Colonial India

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Describe The Various Types Of Land Settlements In Colonial India

During colonial rule in India, various types of land settlements were implemented in order to regulate the use and ownership of land. Some of the main types of land settlements that were implemented in colonial India are as follows:

Permanent Settlement: The Permanent Settlement was introduced in Bengal in 1793 by the British East India Company. Under this settlement, the zamindars (landlords) were recognized as the proprietors of the land and were required to pay a fixed revenue to the government. The zamindars were given the right to collect rent from the tenants and were responsible for maintaining order and security in their areas. The Permanent Settlement was implemented in other parts of India as well, including Bihar, Orissa, and parts of the Bombay Presidency.

Ryotwari Settlement: The Ryotwari Settlement was introduced in Madras in 1820 by the British East India Company. Under this settlement, the land was directly leased to the cultivators, who were required to pay a fixed revenue to the government. The cultivators had the right to sell or transfer their land and were responsible for maintaining order and security in their areas. The Ryotwari Settlement was implemented in other parts of India as well, including parts of the Bombay Presidency and Punjab.

Mahalwari Settlement: The Mahalwari Settlement was introduced in Punjab in 1822 by the British East India Company. Under this settlement, the revenue was collected from the village as a whole and was distributed among the various landholders according to the extent of their holdings. The Mahalwari Settlement was implemented in other parts of India as well, including parts of the North-Western Provinces and the Central Provinces.

Zamindari Settlement: The Zamindari Settlement was introduced in various parts of India, including the North-Western Provinces and the Central Provinces. Under this settlement, the zamindars were recognized as the proprietors of the land and were required to pay a fixed revenue to the government. The zamindars had the right to collect rent from the tenants and were responsible for maintaining order and security in their areas.

Waqf Settlement: The Waqf Settlement was introduced in various parts of India, and applied to land that was held by religious trusts or endowments (waqfs). Under this settlement, the revenue from the land was used for the maintenance and repair of religious institutions and for charitable purposes.

Inam Settlement: The Inam Settlement was introduced in various parts of India and applied to land that was granted by the government or the feudal lords to individuals or institutions in recognition of their services. Under this settlement, the recipients of the land were required to pay a fixed revenue to the government and had the right to collect rent from the tenants.

The various types of land settlements that were implemented in colonial India had a significant impact on the use and ownership of land and shaped the land tenure system in India. These settlements were often accompanied by land revenue systems, which regulated the collection of revenue from the land.

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