Category of Needs Propounded by Karen Horney.
Karen Horney was a psychoanalyst who developed a theory of personality that focused on the role of social and cultural influences on the development of an individual’s character. She proposed three categories of needs that drive an individual’s behaviour and personality:
- Basic needs: These are the physiological and safety needs that are necessary for survival, such as the need for food, water, and shelter.
- Moving away from needs: These are the needs that motivate an individual to avoid negative situations or outcomes, such as the need to avoid rejection or failure.
- Moving toward needs: These are the needs that motivate an individual to seek out positive situations or outcomes, such as the need for love, accomplishment, or self-expression.
According to Horney, the way in which an individual tries to satisfy their basic, moving-away-from, and moving-toward needs can shape their personality and behaviour. For example, an individual who is driven primarily by their basic needs may be more focused on achieving practical goals and meeting their material needs. An individual who is driven primarily by their moving-toward needs may be more focused on personal growth and self-expression.
Horney’s theory of needs and their role in personality development is an important contribution to the field of psychology and has influenced the development of other theories of personality.